In the next 500 words, I won’t explain an “organization” but a “structure”. What I refer to is not the organization of government (though it is a system for sure), but a system that goes with it.
To ensure a balance of government power in the Philippines, with no claim of originality due to American influence, there is the system of checks and balances among the three co-equal branches of government. This system is an offshoot of the doctrine of separation of powers – judicial, executive, and legislative powers.
To illustrate: (a) Congress’ power to legislate is checked by the President – Duterte’s veto on some General Appropriations Act special provisions as an actual case – through its veto power, which in turn may be overturned by the legislature; (b) Congress may not concur with an amnesty proclaimed by the President, and Senate may do the same, rejecting a treaty the President has entered into (and, as another actual case, the Commission on Appointments whose membership is confined to members of Congress, rejected the appointments of Secretaries of Executive Departments Mariano, Taguiwalo, Lopez, and Yasay, who all served as Members of the Duterte Cabinet for only a year); (c) the President may pardon the likes of convicted plunderer Joseph Estrada, nullifying a conviction in a criminal case; (d) the Judiciary (the Supreme Court in particular) has the power to declare invalid acts done by the Executive and Legislative bodies and even Constitutional Commissions as what amounts to their grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction is subject to what is now referred to as the expanded jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Simply put, the three branches of government cannot be compartmentalized (Santiago, 2000); with the system of checks and balances, they resolve conflict arising from acts that impinge on their mutual interdependence (Candelaria & Gesmundo, 2012).
In other words, one department is given certain powers by which it may definitely restrain the others from exceeding constitutional authority. The department may object or resist any encroachment upon its authority, or it may question, if necessary, any act which unlawfully interferes with its sphere of jurisdiction and authority (Suarez, 2005).
Patterned to that of the United States, the republican system of checks and balances in the Philippines is an open system. It is not free from tutelages (of international organizations composed) of several nations. Make no mistake: Even though the Philippines exercises national sovereignty and the right to self-determination, it does so without disregarding its amity with all nations as part of Declaration of Principles and State Policies written in the 1987 Constitution.
It is good to form part of an analysis of Hellriegel, Jackson, and Slocum (1005), though, that the checks and balances system is not completely sealed off from its surroundings, but the system limits its interaction as can be gleaned from the mutual interdependence of the major departments of government.
We particularly see the “functions” of the system so that the three co-equals can work together to accomplish a specified mission (Ryan, 1975). DC Alviar
Walonick, David S. (1993). General Systems Theory
Relacion, April Farell M., and Magalzo, Grace C. (2014). System of Checks and Balances in the Philippine Presidential Form of Government. Retrieved from http://multidisciplinaryjournal.com/pdf/System.pdf
Suarez, Rolando A. (1999). Principles, Comments and Cases in Constitutional Law 1, pp. 97-98.